Primarily envisioned as a non-proliferation instrument, the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) aim to control the export of selected items as a mean to promote U.S. national security interests but also play an active role in U.S. economic diplomacy. The recently adopted U.S. Space Policy Directive-2 called for a revision of ITAR and other export licensing regulations affecting commercial spaceflight activity. Although the results of this revision and the implications for Europe are still undetermined, such policy reminds us of the importance of such export regime for U.S. dominance in space and raises a number of questions related to Europe’s dependence on foreign regulations over which it has no control.

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