Experts routinely caution governments and operators about the rising threats to space infrastructure security, underlining that space is increasingly congested and contested, which poses an intensifying challenge to safely deploying, operating and exploiting space assets. In this context, the growing socio-economic and strategic importance of the European space infrastructure raises new stakes concerning its protection from harm.The purpose of this public ESPI report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of affairs in the current European approach to security in outer space, and to discuss possible future policy developments. In investigating the rationales for a reinforced role of Europe in this field and examining achievements and shortcomings, this report seeks to identify possible pathways to shape a full-fledged European space security strategy. More specifically the study aims to:
- Assess the rationales for an enhanced space security policy in Europe;
- Provide a comprehensive overview of threats challenging the security of European space infrastructure;
- Investigate the European approach and effort in the field of space security and assess achievements and limitations including:
- European objectives and resources;
- European initiatives (e.g. capacity-building programmes, legal and regulatory regimes, cooperation frameworks);
- International cooperation and diplomacy;
- Identify and discuss European stakes, ambitions, and means for short- to long-term space policy developments.